German sprinter Marcel Kittel says he has retired from cycling because he “lost all motivation to keep torturing myself on a bike”.
The 31-year-old, who has 19 grand tour stage wins, announced in May he was taking a break from the sport because he was “exhausted”.
But he has now told German magazine Der Spiegel he will not return.
“The sport and the world you live in are defined by pain,” added Kittel, who left Team Katusha Alpecin in May.
“You don’t have time for family and friends, and then there’s the perpetual tiredness and routine.”
Kittel, who won the last of his 14 Tour de France stage victories in 2017, will also become a father in November.
“As a cyclist, you are on the road for 200 days of the year. I didn’t want to watch my son grow up via Skype,” he added.